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In , the first radio telescope was built, enabling astronomers to detect otherwise invisible radiation from stars. The first gamma-ray telescope launched in , pioneering the study of star explosions supernovae.
Also in the s, astronomers commenced infrared observations using balloon-borne telescopes, gathering information about stars and other objects based on their heat emissions; the first infrared telescope the Infrared Astronomical Satellite launched in Microwave emissions are generally used to probe the young universe's origins, but they are occasionally used to study stars.
In , the first space-based optical telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope , was launched, providing the deepest, most detailed visible-light view of the universe.
There have been, of course, more advanced observatories in all wavelengths over the years, and even more powerful ones are planned.
A couple of examples are the European Extremely Large Telescope E-ELT , which is planned to start observations in in infrared and optical wavelengths.
Ancient cultures saw patterns in the heavens that resembled people, animals or common objects — constellations that came to represent figures from myth, such as Orion the Hunter, a hero in Greek mythology.
Astronomers now often use constellations in the naming of stars. The International Astronomical Union, the world authority for assigning names to celestial objects, officially recognizes 88 constellations.
Usually, the brightest star in a constellation has "alpha," the first letter of the Greek alphabet, as part of its scientific name. The second brightest star in a constellation is typically designated "beta," the third brightest "gamma," and so on until all the Greek letters are used, after which numerical designations follow.
A number of stars have possessed names since antiquity — Betelgeuse , for instance, means "the hand or the armpit of the giant" in Arabic.
It is the brightest star in Orion, and its scientific name is Alpha Orionis. Also, different astronomers over the years have compiled star catalogs that use unique numbering systems.
The Henry Draper Catalog, named after a pioneer in astrophotography, provides spectral classification and rough positions for , stars and has been widely used of by the astronomical community for over half a century.
The catalog designates Betelgeuse as HD Since there are so many stars in the universe, the IAU uses a different system for newfound stars.
Most consist of an abbreviation that stands for either the type of star or a catalog that lists information about the star, followed by a group of symbols.
The J reveals that a coordinate system known as J is being used, while the and are coordinates similar to the latitude and longitude codes used on Earth.
In recent years, the IAU formalized several names for stars amid calls from the astronomical community to include the public in their naming process.
The IAU formalized 14 star names in the "Name ExoWorlds" contest , taking suggestions from science and astronomy clubs around the world. Then in , the IAU approved star names , mostly taking cues from antiquity in making its decision.
The goal was to reduce variations in star names and also spelling "Formalhaut", for example, had 30 recorded variations.
However, the long-standing name "Alpha Centauri" — referring to a famous star system with planets just four light years from Earth — was replaced with Rigel Kentaurus.
A star develops from a giant, slowly rotating cloud that is made up entirely or almost entirely of hydrogen and helium. Due to its own gravitational pull, the cloud behind to collapse inward, and as it shrinks, it spins more and more quickly, with the outer parts becoming a disk while the innermost parts become a roughly spherical clump.
According to NASA, this collapsing material grows hotter and denser, forming a ball-shaped protostar. When the heat and pressure in the protostar reaches about 1.
Nuclear fusion converts a small amount of the mass of these atoms into extraordinary amounts of energy — for instance, 1 gram of mass converted entirely to energy would be equal to an explosion of roughly 22, tons of TNT.
The life cycles of stars follow patterns based mostly on their initial mass. These include intermediate-mass stars such as the sun, with half to eight times the mass of the sun, high-mass stars that are more than eight solar masses, and low-mass stars a tenth to half a solar mass in size.
The greater a star's mass, the shorter its lifespan generally is. Objects smaller than a tenth of a solar mass do not have enough gravitational pull to ignite nuclear fusion — some might become failed stars known as brown dwarfs.
An intermediate-mass star begins with a cloud that takes about , years to collapse into a protostar with a surface temperature of about 6, F 3, C.
After hydrogen fusion starts, the result is a T-Tauri star , a variable star that fluctuates in brightness. This star continues to collapse for roughly 10 million years until its expansion due to energy generated by nuclear fusion is balanced by its contraction from gravity, after which point it becomes a main-sequence star that gets all its energy from hydrogen fusion in its core.
The greater the mass of such a star, the more quickly it will use its hydrogen fuel and the shorter it stays on the main sequence.
After all the hydrogen in the core is fused into helium, the star changes rapidly — without nuclear radiation to resist it, gravity immediately crushes matter down into the star's core, quickly heating the star.
This causes the star's outer layers to expand enormously and to cool and glow red as they do so, rendering the star a red giant. Helium starts fusing together in the core, and once the helium is gone, the core contracts and becomes hotter, once more expanding the star but making it bluer and brighter than before, blowing away its outermost layers.
After the expanding shells of gas fade, the remaining core is left, a white dwarf that consists mostly of carbon and oxygen with an initial temperature of roughly , degrees F , degrees C.
Since white dwarves have no fuel left for fusion, they grow cooler and cooler over billions of years to become black dwarves too faint to detect.
Visit a video creator's page during a live stream or on demand video. They have to be participating in Facebook Stars. How do I send Stars to a video creator on Facebook?
To send Stars, go to a video creator's page. If they are participating in Facebook Stars, it is usually on a live or on demand video. After watching a video for 5 to 10 seconds on your News Feed, you may see a pop-up in the live video.
This feature gives you the ability to buy and send Stars and leave a comment for the creator. Your Stars and comment will be visible to the video creator and anyone watching the live video.
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Stars are one way creators can earn money from their content on Facebook. Yes, you can submit a request to that creator, if that creator is currently creating content that meets our community standards and is living in a country where Stars are enabled.
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Update your payment method by accessing your Facebook Pay account directly. Where can I see my Stars balance? To see your Stars balance from a video:.
How do I find my Stars receipt? As the cloud collapses, a dense, hot core forms and begins gathering dust and gas. Not all of this material ends up as part of a star — the remaining dust can become planets, asteroids, or comets or may remain as dust.
In some cases, the cloud may not collapse at a steady pace. In January , an amateur astronomer, James McNeil, discovered a small nebula that appeared unexpectedly near the nebula Messier 78, in the constellation of Orion.
When observers around the world pointed their instruments at McNeil's Nebula , they found something interesting — its brightness appears to vary.
Observations with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory provided a likely explanation: the interaction between the young star's magnetic field and the surrounding gas causes episodic increases in brightness.
A star the size of our Sun requires about 50 million years to mature from the beginning of the collapse to adulthood. Our Sun will stay in this mature phase on the main sequence as shown in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram for approximately 10 billion years.
Stars are fueled by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen to form helium deep in their interiors. The outflow of energy from the central regions of the star provides the pressure necessary to keep the star from collapsing under its own weight, and the energy by which it shines.
As shown in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram, Main Sequence stars span a wide range of luminosities and colors, and can be classified according to those characteristics.
Despite their diminutive nature, red dwarfs are by far the most numerous stars in the Universe and have lifespans of tens of billions of years.
On the other hand, the most massive stars, known as hypergiants, may be or more times more massive than the Sun, and have surface temperatures of more than 30, K.
Hypergiants emit hundreds of thousands of times more energy than the Sun, but have lifetimes of only a few million years. Although extreme stars such as these are believed to have been common in the early Universe, today they are extremely rare - the entire Milky Way galaxy contains only a handful of hypergiants.
In general, the larger a star, the shorter its life, although all but the most massive stars live for billions of years. When a star has fused all the hydrogen in its core, nuclear reactions cease.
Deprived of the energy production needed to support it, the core begins to collapse into itself and becomes much hotter.
Hydrogen is still available outside the core, so hydrogen fusion continues in a shell surrounding the core. The increasingly hot core also pushes the outer layers of the star outward, causing them to expand and cool, transforming the star into a red giant.
If the star is sufficiently massive, the collapsing core may become hot enough to support more exotic nuclear reactions that consume helium and produce a variety of heavier elements up to iron.
However, such reactions offer only a temporary reprieve. Gradually, the star's internal nuclear fires become increasingly unstable - sometimes burning furiously, other times dying down.
These variations cause the star to pulsate and throw off its outer layers, enshrouding itself in a cocoon of gas and dust. What happens next depends on the size of the core.
Universe Learn About This Image. Stars Stars are the most widely recognized astronomical objects, and represent the most fundamental building blocks of galaxies.
Star Formation Stars are born within the clouds of dust and scattered throughout most galaxies. Black Holes. The Big Bang. Helpful Links Organization and Staff.
Astrophysics Fleet Mission Chart. Spacecraft Paper Models. Related Content Mysteries of the Sun. Death of Stars video.
Life Cycles of Stars. More About Stars.
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